- Introduction by Prof.K.T.Pandurangi 


Rukmi’s initiative to arrange the swayamvara of Rukmini 

Rukmi the son of Bhishmaka planned to give Rukmini in marriage to Shishupala by arranging Swayamvara. Demon Ilvala was born as Rukmi.Such the son of Vahni also had entered him.  He had studied Dhanurvidya from Druma and had secured the bow – Vijaya of Indra. This was equal in strength ot Gandiva and Saranga. When swayamvara was announced Jarasandha, Salva, Paundraka and Shishupala arrived. Sri Krishna also arrived seated on Garuda. When Shishupala and Dantavakra found that Krishna had arrived they pleaded with others not oppose to Krishna. After all they were originally devotees of Sri Krishna. However Jarasandha opposed it. 

Coronation of Sri Krishna 

Krishna was not duly coronated on the throne. Therefore he was not entitled for a seat in the swayamvara hall nor for any hospitality. They though if they did not provide him a seat he would go away.  Kratha and Kaisika the brothers of Bhishmaka came to know of it. They took Krishna to their residence and arranged for their coronation. In the meanwhile a messenger of Indra came and advised the princes gathered to coronate Krishna. He said Indra would throw vajrayudha on them if they failed to carry out his order. Indra did not want Jarasandha, Rukmi,Salva and Shishupala to participate in the coronation of Sri Krishna.therefore he has asked them not to join. They also did not want to join.Indra sent a rich throne. Krishna made Garuda sit on the right side, Kratha , Kaisika and satyaki on left side.Then coronation bath was given using a golden pitcher. Krishna blessed Bhishmaka and said his daughter’s marriage would be auspicious.He revealed his Vishvarupa to him .Bhismaka saw infinite incarnations of Vishnu and Lakshmi in that Vishvarupa.Sri Krishna returned to Mathura 

The birth of Kalayavana 

Jarasandha was very much upset by this development. He said their plan was upset then. Krishna was coronated in their very presence.They thought that they should conceive of another plan to get Rukmini married to Shishupala. Salva suggested a plan. Once in presences of Krishna yadavas insulted Garga. On this Garga performed penance to shiva to get a son who would eliminate Krishna. During the penance he subsisted on iron pieces.A yavana king wanted a son. He managed to tempt Garga to sport with a Gopa woman who was a Demon and had managed the Gopis.Garga begot a dark son through this woman. He was kalayavana. Though Garga begot such a son and gave him to yavana king he felt repentant and performed penance to Vishnu. Salva said that they might utilize that kalayavana. Jarasandha felt below his dignity to seek help from others. However, Salva went and brought Kalayavana. 

Yadavas move to Dwaraka

Krishna came to know that kalayavana would attack Mathura and harass yadavas.Therefore he thought of building a new city i.e., Dwaraka and shifting the Yadavas from Mathura.He invited Vishvakarma to build the city. A grand city with Sudharma hall was built.Earlier the city of Kushastali was in the same place. The yadavas moved to this new city . 

The battle with Kalayavana 

Krishna went to fight kalayavana without any army. He put a snake in a jar and sent it to Kalayavana, thereby indicating that he alone could kill him. Kalayavana returned it filled with ants that killed the snake, thereby indicating a large number of ants could kill even a snake. This was the mistake on his part. Garga had secured the boon that his son would eliminate Krishna. This was fulfilled by killing the dark snake by Kalayavana. Now, Krishna could not be killed. Thus the very purpose of Kalayavana’s birth was defeated by this act. Kalayavana feverishly attacked Krishna. Krishna defeated him. However, he did not want to kill him himself. He pretended to run away., Kalayavana followed him. Krishna entered into the cave of Muchukunda and hid himself. Kalayavana kicked the sleeping Muchukunda and he was burnt down. Muchukunda’s long sleep had a background. He had helped the gods to defeat the demons.They asked him to ask for something.He asked for salvation .The gods said Lord Vishnu alone could give salvation and therefore, to ask for something else,,He asked asked for long and deep sleep.He said,if anyone disturbed him he should be burnt down.This had exactly happened to Kalayavna. Krishna came out of the cave and defeated Jarasandha,Salva,Paundraka and Shishupala and went back to Dwarka. 

Rukmini’s message to Krishna 

Jarasandha etc again planned to arrange the marriage of Rukmini with Shishupala. Rukmini sent a message through a Brahmana that when she visited he family diety as a prilimnary to her marriage Sri Krishna should take her away.Accordingly Krishna rushed to the temple and took her away. When Jarasandha and others tried to attack Krishna, Balarama prevented them. Shishupala arrived decorated with bridegroom’s dress, and tried to attack Krishna. He was prevented by Satyaki. Krishna defeated all others. On return to Dwaraka, Krishna’s marriage was arranged with all pomp. Balarama had already married Revati. Krishna begot the son Manmatha through Rukmini. Since, Praduymna form of God was present in him he was also known as Pradyumna. 

Praduymna Kills Shambara Narada had told Shambara that Pradyumna would kill him. Therefore Shambara took away Pradyumna as soon he was born and threw him in the sea.A fish swallowed the child. A fisherman cut the fish and got the child. He handed it over to Shambara, Manmatha’s wife Rati was with Shambara due to a curse by Brahma, She was happy to get her husband Manmatha in the form of this child. She gave Parasurama mantra to him. With the help of this Mantra Pradyumna killed Shambara and returned to Dvaraka. 


Satrajita had obtained Syamnatakamani from the sun. He was a good friend of the Sun. Satrajita was a greedy person. Krishna asked him to give Syamnatakamani to him in order to expose his greediness.Naturally he refused to give. Once Satrajita’s younger brother Prasena went for hunting wearing Syamnatakamani.  He was killed by a lion.  Satrajit thought Krishna must have killed to take away the Syamnatakamani. Krishna went to forest to find out the truth. HE traced the place where Prasena was killed by footprints.He also traced the fact that this lion was killed by bear. Following that clue he went into the cave of Jambuvan. There was a fight between krishna and Jambhavan, When Jambavan was exhausted he remembered his master Sri Rama.Whe he looked at Sri Krishna he saw him as Sri Rama. HE realised that Krishna was God himself. He gave Syamnatakamani to him and also his daughter Jambavati. Satrajit also realised that he had made unnecessary allegations against Sri Krishna, He gave his daughter Satyabhama in marriage to Sri Krishna , She was bhu form of gofess Lakshmi while Rukmini was of Shree form. 

Hamsa and Dhibika 

Hamsa and Dhibika though of performing Rajasuya sacrifice to create an ocassion to insult Sri Krishna. They sent a Brahmana messenger to Janardhana with the demand that Krishna should supply salt to the sacrifice as he lived on the sea shore.Krishna sent back a message he would rather give a hit by sharp weapon and invited them to Pushkara. In the meanwhile Hamsa and Dhibika had insulted Dhurvasa by taking away his Kaupinda and other things,Durvasa went to Sri Krishna.He gave him silk kaupina.Krishna went ot Pushkara with Durvasa. Hamsa and Dhibika arrived.Vichakra and Hidimba also accompanied them.There was a seventeen akshauhini army.On the Yadava’s side there was only three akshauhini army.Balarama,Satyaki and Gada also participated in the fight. Hamsa entered into the mouth of snake called Dhritarashtra. Dibhika pulled out his out his own toungue and went into Tamas.He waited for his brother at the Tamas. Sri Krishna returned to Dwaraka.